CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 2(22) / 2017
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 2(22) / 2017
SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL the Research Institute of Human Morphology
Plasticity of the endocrine part of human pancreas
For a long time it was thought that pancreatic response to increased metabolic demand on insulin secretion is very limited. Currently, there is strong evidence for plasticity of the endocrine part of human pancreas and its adaptation capacity. The aim of this brief review was to discuss the morphogenetic plasticity of the endocrine part of human pancreas in normal physiological conditions (prenatal and postnatal development) and in conditions of impaired carbohydrate metabolism with special reference to the data obtained over the last decade in the laboratory of nervous system development of the Institute of Human morphology.
Morphological and immunohistochemical features of different types of Сastleman’s disease. Part 2. Differential diagnosing of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy
The aim of the study was to perform a morphoimmunohistochemical analysis of IgG4-associated variants of Castleman’s disease. Immunohistochemical examination with antibodies to IgG and IgG4 with the IgG4 / IgG ratio was performed in 16 cases with mixed cell (76.2%) and 14 with plasma cell morphological picture (77.8%), in 18 cases there was a generalized lesion. Five of 18 cases (27.8%) of multicentric Castleman’s disease showed an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in 10 standard fields of vision and an IgG4 / IgG ratio more than 40%, which made it possible to distinguish the multicentric Castleman’s disease associated with IgG4- related lymphadenopathy. Conclusion – the sub-type of a multicentric Castleman’s disease associated with IgG4- related lymphadenopathy has a favorable prognosis.
Distribution of vimentin in the human pancreatic epithelial cells during prenatal development
As it was shown for mammals, vimentin is expressed in the epithelial and endocrine cells during pancreas development and regeneration suggesting the involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the morphogenesis of the endocrine compartment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of vimentin in the epithelial and endocrine cells of human pancreas during prenatal development. The study was performed on 35 pancreatic autopsies of human fetuses aged from the 8th to 40th gestational weeks. Double immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence labeling with antibodies to vimentin, an epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19), and hormones of endocrine cells (insulin and glucagon) were used. Vimentin-positive epithelial cells were observed in the pancreatic ducts and their outgrowths at all stages of prenatal development. In the pancreas of fetuses from the 12nd to 40th gestational weeks we detected single cells with colocalization between vimentin and insulin or glucagon. These results suggest the contribution of epithelial-mesenchymal transition to the morphogenesis of human pancreatic endocrine compartment.
Key words: pancreas, human development, vimentin, insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin 19
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF DOMESTIC MEDICINAL PREPARATION VIFERON® IN CHRONIC PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION OF PREGNANT WOMEN ACCORDING MORPHOMETRY OF PLACEN
The study of the effect of domestic medicinal preparation VIFERON®, rectal suppositories (recombinant human interferon alpha-2b with antioxidants vitamins C and E), on the structure of the placenta in pregnant women with chronic papillomavirus infection. Thirty placentas were collected in two groups of women, comparable in clinical symptoms as well as in 100% PCR-detection of papillomavirus type 16 and 18 in cervix-gastric wash. Five to six samples of placental tissue were submitted to a routine histological procedure. Paraffin sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. The degree of 10 pathological and compensatory reactions including chronic placental insufficiency was evaluated on a three-point scale. The differences were tested by Mann-Whitney U test. In the untreated group of women, placenta exhibited inflammatory changes according to the hematogenous type of infection of papillomavirus (intervillusites, subchorionites, deciduites), retardation of certain groups of villi and haemorheological disorders. Moderate chronic placental insufficiency and slight decreased baby weight were diagnosed in 83.3% of the cases. Cycle of treatment with VIFERON® suppositories in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy induced significant reduction of inflammation, intervillar hemorrhages, immature villi and, most importantly, chronic placental insufficiency (26,6%) due to the activation of compensatory angiomatosis. As a result, the weight of newborns reached the norm. We obtained morphometric evidence of the efficacy of VIFERON®, in early treatment of placental insufficiency of the viral nature.
V.A. Smolyannikova, M.A. Nefedova, A.A. Kubanov, T.V. Abramova
Experience of use of confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous dermatoses
Diagnosis of autoimmune bullous dermatoses requires an integrated approach with the use immunomorphological methods in addition to cytological and histological studies. We present the results of the diagnosis of acantholytic pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid with the use of indirect immunofluorescence reaction, which allows to detect and determine the localization of IgG in apparently unaffected skin of patients. The wide possibilities of using confocal laser scanning microscopy to analyze immunofluorescent assay preparations are demonstrated.
Morphological study of ovarian tumors in pregnant women
Ultrasound at early pregnancy improves the detection of ovarian tumors, which incidence is estimated to be 0.19–8.8%. The literature data regarding the association of ovarian neoplasms and pregnancy are devoted to the study of the tactics of pregnancy management and methods of treatment of these women. The purpose of our study was to analyze the morphological features of ovarian tumors in pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed pathology reports and specimens of ovarian tumors from pregnant patients which underwent surgery in the Center of family planning and reproduction of Moscow Health Department in years 2012 to 2016. Ovarian tumors were reported in 108 pregnant women, benign neoplasms were detected in 89 patients, borderline tumors, in 19 cases, development of adenocarcinoma against a borderline tumor was revealed in 3 cases of 19. Borderline tumors were characterized by variable macro- and microscopic manifestations. Decidual metamorphosis was observed in 22 women. Ovarian neoplasms in pregnant women vary in histological types, sizes, and degree of malignancy. Decidual reaction in ovarian tumors was specific to pregnancy. However, these changes were revealed in a limited number of patients.
Key words: ovarian tumors in pregnant women, borderline cystadenoma
Morphological features of experimental pneumonic plague
The objective of the study was to characterize the time course of morphological changes in organs and tissues of BALB/c mice against the background of pneumonic plague simulated by intranasal inoculation of Yersinia pestis 231. BALB/c mice (29 animals) were intranasally infected with Y. pestis 231 strain. Pathomorphological study of the samples obtained after 24 hours, 48 hours and 5-7 days after infection was performed. The technique of modeling the pulmonary form of the plague was worked out. The progression of morphological changes in the organs of biomodels in case of intranasal infection with a virulent plague agent strain has been characterized. Conclusions: simulation of plague through intranasal infection with a virulent culture of plague microbe in BALB/c mice makes it possible to reproduce the infectious process morphologically similar to those observed in primary plague pneumonia and characterized by rapid generalization.
Effect of peroxiredoxin 6 and paracrine factors of mesenchymal stem cells on full thickness skin wound healing
An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of peroxiredoxin 6 and conditioned medium of mesenchymal stem cells in full thickness skin wound healing. Recombinant enzyme antioxidant peroxiredoxin 6 improves vascularization, and conditioned medium of mesenchymal stem cells promotes granulation tissue formation. Combination of paracrine agents and peroxiredoxin produces the best therapeutic effect significantly accelerating mechanical wound healing.
Features of the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and GFAP in the rat hippocampus in the hypertensive encephalopathy model
The purpose of the work was to study morphometric features of rat hippocampal pyramidal layer and to assess the expression level of heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 together with GFAP expression in hypertensive encephalopathy modeled in Wistar rats by 9G-force during centrifuge training (caudal-to-cranial direction) twice a day for 28 days. We revealed marked increase in the number of damaged neurons as well as decreased specific density of pyramidal layer neurons in all hippocampal zones. These signs of reversible and irreversible damage were accompanied by significant increase in the expression of Hsp70, especially pronounced in the CA3 zone. At the same time, significant enhancement of GFAP expression was most prominent in the CA2 and CA4 zones. The less marked increase in Hsp90 expression compared to Hsp70 suggests a lesser role for Hsp90 in cell survival in the modeling of hypertensive encephalopathy.
Anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in the experimental glioblastoma
The comparative investigation of the antineoplastic effectiveness of soluble doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and doxorubicin as part of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic) nanoparticle (DOX-PLGA) was led on the model of a rat glioblastoma 101.8. We conducted the study using 58 sexually mature Wistar male rats. Antineoplastic activity was estimated by mean lifetime and increase in life expectancy. The extent of tumor growth inhibition was determined according to the values of tumor volumes calculated for 3D-reconstructions of frontal serial-graded slices of the rat brain. Three injections of DOX-PLGA to the rats with glioma 101.8 had greater therapeutic effect compared with injections of DOX substantia. The results of the experimental study allow to consider DOX-PLGA as a promising drug for clinical use.
Modified acrosome staining technique for murine spermatids
The article presents modified acrosome staining technique for murine spermatids. Touch smears were fixed by Shabadash’s method. The specimens are better stained when the ions of copper predominate in the fixing fluid unlike in classical Shabadash’s solution with calcium iones. Also, the optimal conditions for all stages of acrosome staining (fixation, oxidation, staining with Schiff-reagent, staining cell nuclei with hematoxylin and embedding) are given for the purpose of obtaining a clear result and acrosome visualization.
Key words: acrosome, murine spermatids’ acrosomes, method of acrosome staining